Excel Formulas are a combination of Excel Operators and/or Excel Functions.

An Excel Formula is entered into a spreadsheet cell by typing in the = sign, followed by the required operators and/or functions. An example would be a basic addition such as =A1+B1+C1, or it could be a complex combination of Excel Operators and Excel Functions such as =SUMPRODUCT( A2:A4, B2:B4 ) / SUM( B2:B4 ) to calculate a weighted average.

Formulas calculate a value from a cell or range of cells, including the results from other formulas. Functions are predefined formulas and are available in Spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel, Apache OpenOffice Calc, and Google Sheets.

## Popular Functions in Excel

**SUM function**

Function to add the values in cells.

**IF function**

Returns one value if a condition is true and another value if it's false.

**LOOKUP function**

Looks in a single row or column and finds a value from the same position in a second row or column.

**VLOOKUP function**

Finds values in a table or a range by row.

**MATCH function**

Searches for an item in a range of cells, and then returns the relative position of that item in the range.

**CHOOSE function**

Returns a value from a list using a given position or index.

**DATE function**

Returns the sequential serial number that represents a particular date.

**DATEDIF function**

Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates.

**DAYS function**

Returns the number of days between two dates.

**FIND, FINDB functions**

Locates one text string within a second text string. Returns the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

**INDEX function**

Returns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range.

## Entering a Formula in Excel

Excel has Formulas Tab that lists all the available Formulas in Categories as well as Recently Used.

To enter a Formula, for instance the SUM function, click on the cell in which the Formula is to appear, and then select the Formula required in the boxes under the Formulas Tab. Excel will then show the Formula Builder prompting you to add the necessary criteria, cell ranges etc.